Sodium stibogluconate is a medicine used to treat leishmaniasis and is only available for administration by injection. It belongs to the class of drugs known as the pentavalent antimonials because they contain antimony in its oxidation state of 5. Sodium stibogluconate is marketed under the name Pentostam. In parts of the world resistance has limited the utility of sodium stibogluconate, in which cases amphotericin or miltefosine is used instead.
Sodium stibogluconate is available in the United Kingdom as Pentostam, where it is manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. It is available in the United States on a named-patient basis from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The dose of sodium stibogluconate is by slow intravenous infusion (at least five minutes with cardiac monitoring). The injection are stopped if there is coughing or central chest pain. The chemotherapeutic index was established by Leonard Goodwin during the Second World War when a treatment was urgently required for Allied troops during the invasion of Sicily.
The duration of treatment is usually 10 to 21 days and depends on the species of Leishmania and the type of infection (cutaneous or visceral).