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Botulinum Toxin A :-
Botulinum toxin (abbreviated either as BTX or BoNT) is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. The clinical syndrome of botulism can occur following ingestion of contaminated food, from colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract, or from a wound infection.
BoNT is broken into 7 neurotoxins (labeled as types A, B, C [C1, C2], D, E, F, and G), which are antigenically and serologically distinct but structurally similar. Human botulism is caused mainly by types A, B, E, and (rarely) F. Types C and D cause toxicity only in animals.
The various botulinum toxins possess individual potencies, and care is required to assure proper use and avoid medication errors. Recent changes to the established drug names by the FDA were intended to reinforce these differences and prevent medication errors. The products and their approved indications include the following:
OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox, Botox Cosmetic)
Botox - Cervical dystonia, severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis, strabismus, blepharospasm, neurogenic detrusor overactivity, chronic migraine, upper limb spasticity
Botox Cosmetic - Moderate-to-severe glabellar lines
AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport) - Cervical dystonia, moderate-to-severe glabellar lines
IncobotulinumtoxinA - Cervical dystonia, blepharospasm
RimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc) - Cervical dystonia
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